behavioral health integration

Integrated Care Thought Leader Series: Dale Klatzker, PhD

The Times, They Are a-Changin’

When Bob Dylan wrote this iconic song, many felt that it captured the spirit of social and political upheaval of the 1960s, much in the same way that we view mental health as “a-changin’.”  And these changes require mental/behavioral health providers to change the manner in which they deliver services.

Reports over the past decade have brought attention to the current mental health crisis:

In addition, over the past few years far too many catastrophic events have brought attention to this mental health crisis, resulting in a public outcry, demanding that changes are made to prevent future tragedies.

But change isn’t easy.

The relatively brief history of community mental health services has been a challenging one. Just a few months ago, as we celebrated the 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy’s signing the Community Mental Health Bill into law, the conversations quickly progressed to the subject that is on the minds of virtually all behavioral health providers—and an unusually large number of the general public and policy makers, given the historical lackluster interest in the topic—mental health is in dire need of change.

The economic downturn in the US in 2008 resulted in massive budget cuts in all but a few states. The March 2011 NAMI report, State Mental Health Cuts: A National Crisis, demonstrated the cumulative cut to mental health services in the U.S. during that time was nearly $1.6 billion. Community mental health services plummeted from being barely adequate to the critical point in many states. Safety-net providers were forced to close programs due to the slashed budgets. Many of those affected ended up on the streets or in jail.

The recent announcement on the anniversary of the Sandy Hook tragedy, of the planned infusion of dollars into help repair our broken mental health system, is encouraging. However, the entire mental health system is in dire need of an overhaul. One that looks at the broader healthcare picture and strategically plans for mental health and substance use disorder treatment to be included. A person-centered, whole health approach to treatment is necessary for improving the patient experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita cost of health care: the Triple Aim.

Dale Klatzker, PhD
Dale Klatzker, PhD

Dr. Dale Klatzker knows that, although it isn’t easy, change is vital for community behavioral health providers.

It’s exciting to be able to offer a look at integrated care from the perspective of a provider, particularly a provider who has demonstrated leadership excellence in integrating behavioral health and primary care services. Dr. Klatzker currently serves as the Chief Executive Officer of The Providence Center in Providence, Rhode Island. He has been a leader in behavioral healthcare for more than 35 years. Since becoming president/CEO of The Providence Center in 2004, Dr. Klatzker, a visionary, has transformed the system of care, quality of service delivery, and social policy decision making at The Providence Center and the state of Rhode Island.  Click here for Dr. Dale Klatzker’s bio.

The Providence Center and the Providence Community Health Centers have created a successful partnership to meet the whole-health needs of the people they serve within their community; a need that is clearly outlined in the literature. According to the Robert Wood Foundation’s Mental Disorders and Medical Comorbidity authored by Dr. Benjamin Druss and Elizabeth Walker, comorbidity between medical and mental conditions is the rule rather than the exception:

In 2002, more than half of disabled Medicaid enrollees with psychiatric conditions also had claims for diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), or pulmonary disease, substantially higher than rates of these illnesses among persons without psychiatric conditions. The authors conclude that the high prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses among people with chronic medical conditions should be an impetus for prioritizing the improved integration of behavioral and medical care.

What advice do you have for healthcare leaders?

Dr. Klatzker:  Change is a good thing. Most CMHCs haven’t changed a lot. They haven’t prepared themselves to change a lot and have marginalized themselves and the people that they serve by not being more a part of the mainstream. We have sets of skills that are integral to wellness and to health across a wide spectrum. We need to be proud of what we do, but also to expand it and extend it because this is the perfect time for this. We have a lot of things to offer that others are trying to replicate.

Things don’t stay static. You have to look though the windshield but also through the rear-view mirror. You have to know where you are but you also have to know where you’re going.

As executive director/CEO of a behavioral health organization, you have the obligation to push yourself, and that will push your organization, to do what is necessary so that your mission is reinforced but also to serve the needs of the community. It’s hard to do that if you’re doing the same thing you did 20 years ago. We do our consumers a disservice if we do that.

Person-centered approach to care

Dr. Klatzker: What we’ve embraced here – what’s part of the DNA of the organization at The Providence Center – we  believe in a person-centered approach to care. No two people are exactly the same. The people that we work for deserve as much access to a wide array of both health and social supports as anyone. That’s how you have to guide yourself. When you’re thinking of those things, primary care integration, working much more toward the mainstream of traditional healthcare is imperative for us.(7:14)

What we’ve found is, if you can build those relationships and find the right connections, then others will embrace you and value you for what you bring to the table. In fact, we bring a lot. Partnership is always the first choice, the default.

We don’t chase dollars, we don’t create programs because it’s the idea du jour from some funder somewhere, we consciously look on our mission as our touchstone and build upon that to provide as much choice to the people we serve. We can be very person-centered because there aren’t many gaps in what we’re providing. (They provide a wider array of services than the average CMHC) We’ve consciously built out a wide array because we think it’s the right thing to do. Rather than to take a “no,” if we can’t partner, we build.

Example of a successful integrated care partnership

Dr. Klatzker: The Providence Center is closely connected to one the largest federally qualified health center in the state of Rhode Island, the Providence Community Health Center. We have become the largest community mental health center. Neither had a desire to replicate the services that the other provided. Over the years we’ve built this into a “no wrong door” integrated collaborative effort so that in the mental health center, the FQHC runs a full-service practice with 1100-1200 patients. In the FQHC, we are integrated in their physician practices building and we also have a separate section of their building where we provide longer term care and some other types of specialty care. We’ve integrated our records with each other. We meet frequently to process and to try to figure out how to make our care efficient and effective. We are working closely with them now on adopting our health home model to integrate a modified health home into the FQHC.

Yes, the times they are a-changin’. And so are healthcare providers. (At least the forward-thinking providers like The Providence Center.) They are heeding the findings from the numerous expert reports and research. They are thinking outside the box, adopting a person-centered approach that enables better outcomes for the many who place their trust in them—trusting them to take care of their whole-health needs.

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behavioral health integration

Behavioral Health Integration 2013 in Review

2013 has been a very good year for Behavioral Health Integration Blog! Our popular Integrated Care Thought Leader Series began this year, providing insights into the minds of some of the most prominent thought leaders in integrated care, including Dr. Alexander “Sandy” Blount, Dr. Benjamin Druss, Larry Fricks, and Dr. Benjamin Miller. Stay tuned in 2014! We have several excellent integrated care thought leaders lined up, to provide their expert perspectives on whole health and integrating behavioral health and primary care for enhancing health outcomes, reducing healthcare costs, and improving access to healthcare.

The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

A New York City subway train holds 1,200 people. This blog was viewed about 4,800 times in 2013. If it were a NYC subway train, it would take about 4 trips to carry that many people.

Click here to see the complete report.

behavioral health integration · behavioral health primary care integration · healthcare integration

Integration of Behavioral Health and Primary Care: Preparing for Service Delivery

When your behavioral health and primary care integration partnership has worked through the preliminary groundwork for integrating services (click here for more information on planning), it’s time for preparing for the delivery of the services. The detailed outline created in earlier steps becomes your business plan. The plan serves as a map of the partnership’s goals and provides direction for delivering services.

Formalizing the partnership

When two organizations are collaborating for providing integrated services, it’s important to understand the legal and regulatory requirements. Working through this process should include consultation with an attorney. The following resources provide additional information for consideration:

Service Delivery

Once the legalities have been addressed, including the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding, Business Associates Agreement, etc., it’s (finally!) time to establish a start date and prepare for the delivery of the much needed services. The preliminary work, though tedious at times, was necessary to ensure the success of service delivery.

Careful planning is the hallmark of successful healthcare integration!

Through the careful planning of the behavioral health and primary care providers, they are ready to offer services in a more holistic manner. With co-morbid behavioral and physical health conditions more often the rule rather than the exception, the newly integrated services enable the team to provide much more comprehensive care coordination in this behavioral health and primary care marriage than either partner could have done independently. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts!

Celebrating Success

Once the equipment and supplies are in place, staff training is completed, and the start date has been announced to internal and external referral sources, it’s time to celebrate!

Celebrating important milestones is very important for ongoing success. It is an opportunity to strengthen relations among the healthcare integration team. Also, celebrating milestones is a valuable opportunity for leaders to re-energize their employees around the partnership’s Strategic Objectives by thanking the people who helped make the achievements happen.

Though things won’t always be harmonious, the partnership can persevere the difficult times through establishing a strong core to build upon. As discussed in The Partnership: Creating a Solid Foundation for Successful Healthcare Integration: “A partnership that has the solid and flexible foundation that is necessary for a lasting partnership” will weather the inevitable storms ahead.

If we are together nothing is impossible. If we are divided all will fail.
–Winston Churchill

behavioral health primary care integration · healthcare integration

Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care Services: Checklist for Developing the Plan

You have decided on the model that best meets the needs of your partnership and community (click here for Choosing the Right Model for Your Integrated Healthcare Services) and you’re ready to move forward to the next stage. The planning stage is preparation for implementing services and can be divided into three parts: clinical, financial, and operational.

This guide can serve as a checklist for partners to use in preparing for service delivery.

Clinical

The planning should include a detailed account of the service array to be provided, to include the following:

  • Identification of the targeted recipients of the services
  • Determine the specific services to be delivered and by whom
  • What clinical tools will be used?

Financial

Prepare a detailed account of the codes that are to be billed, including which partner will bill for each service. Other important topics include:

  • A determination of how labs and prescriptions will be processed. Typically, CHCs have access to better rates for each. Careful planning allows for maximizing billing opportunities.
  • Who will operate the patient assistance program? How will it be managed?

Operational

Entering into a partnership affects every aspect of the organization: clinical, support, administrative, IT, etc. Successfully navigating change cannot be accomplished without staff buy-in: they will be the ones primarily responsible for implementation. Therefore it is vital to involve employees from each of the organizations in the planning process.

Don’t forget that communication is a key element. Transparency is necessary from the onset. Identify champions from various levels within the organizations to assist with the detailed planning. Create implementation teams with staff from each organization for early face-to-face interaction.

Include the following in your planning:

  • The physical space: Careful thought must be put into this and MUST include both partners. It’s common for new projects to be housed in existing empty offices, frequently in out-of-the-way locations. This, however, is not the correct approach for healthcare integration. The physical space is extremely important and requires careful consideration in ensuring that the imbedded staff do not work in isolation but are able to interact with others frequently. Shared space allows the relationships to develop, fostering the sense of being a team. Frequent passing in the hallways allows for hallway consults, facilitation the collaborative approach.
  • Compliance: Regulatory requirements of JCAHO, CARF, etc. It is very important to understand and respect your partner’s requirements.
  • Liability insurance: Depending on the type of partnership, coverage will vary. It’s important to review requirements to ensure appropriate coverage.
  • Process mapping: This a vital component and must include input from clinical and administrative staff.
  • Workflow: Focusing on the experience of the patient/client is important for success.

Also, the following are very important to consider:

  • What clinical, financial, and operational outcomes are expected?
  • How will clinical, financial, and operational outcomes be tracked and measured?

It cannot be emphasized enough that this process cannot be successfully completed by a small group of executive staff. Successful change requires the involvement of all stakeholders.

behavioral health integration · behavioral health primary care integration · collaborative care · healthcare integration · primary care behavioral health integration

The Partnership: Choosing the Right Model for Your Integrated Healthcare Services

Determining the Model

How do partnering Community Behavioral Health Centers (CBHC) and  Community Health Centers (CHC) determine the ideal model for their foray into integration? There are many factors to consider such as:

  • What are the needs of the individuals served by the partnering organizations?
  • What are the needs of the community?
  • What resources do the organizations bring to the partnership?

Now that the partners have a solid foundation and clear vision for their collaboration, it is time for the careful planning that is necessary to make it a reality.  There are effective tools available to assist organizations in working through this very important process. (Please note that these suggestions and resources are not limited to community providers.) 

The MH/Primary Care Integration Options scale  is available on the SAMHSA-HRSA Center for Integrated Health Solution website. This is very helpful for leading the discussion among the members of the implementation team. The scale assists the partners not only in determining the current reality but also mutually deciding on the desired level of integration: Minimal Collaboration, Basic Collaboration from a Distance, Basic Collaboration On-Site, Close Collaboration/Partly Integrated, and Fully Integrated/Merged in each of these key functional areas:

  1. Access: How do individuals access services?
  2. Services: Are the services separate and distinct or are the primary care and behavioral health services seamless? Or perhaps somewhere in between.
  3. Funding: Do the partners share resources or are they separate?
  4. Governance: Are there separate boards of directors for each organization?
  5. Evidence-based Practices: Do the organizations administer the PHQ-9 or disease registries, for example, and share the results?
  6. Data: Do the partners share information? Do the providers have access to the partner’s EHR?

This assessment process is most effective when stakeholders from each organization are included. Ideally, representatives are included from clinical, management, and administrative departments, as well as a few individuals who use the services. It’s very helpful to have frontline staff and board members to take part as well.  Call center and reception staff offer a unique perspective that leadership frequently finds enlightening.

Other useful tools available include the National Council’s Success in the New Healthcare Ecosystem: Mental Health & Substance Use Provider Readiness Assessment prepared by Dale Jarvis.   This allows provider organization management teams to assess their organization’s readiness for engaging in the changing healthcare system.

Another tool to consider is the COMPASS-PH/BH  created by Zia Partners.  This self-assessment tool is used for primary care/behavioral health integration for implementation of a Comprehensive Continuous Integrated System of Care.

Making the Vision into a Reality

Once the ideal model of integration has been determined, the journey begins to make it a reality. Be sure to stop by for the next installment in the series.

What tools or methods have you found to be helpful when selecting a model for your healthcare integration endeavor?

I would love to hear from you! Please email your suggestions to me at behavioralhealthintegration@gmail.com for inclusion in a future post.

 

behavioral health integration · healthcare integration · primary care behavioral health integration

The Partnership: Creating a Solid Foundation for Successful Healthcare Integration

Consider this scenario:

The CEO of the local Community Behavioral Health Center (CBHC) and the CEO of the local Community Health Center (CHC) bump into each other at a local community function. The conversation turns to a deliberation about healthcare integration. They plan to meet for lunch next week to discuss it further.

At lunch, they examine the latest healthcare trend: providers from behavioral health and primary care joining forces to form integrated healthcare partnerships to improve health outcomes. Both agree that theirs’ is a match made in heaven. Over dessert they decide to become partners, sealed with a firm handshake.

What happens next?

For a successful partnership, it is crucial to start with a solid foundation that includes flexibility in the core structure to weather the inevitable storms ahead. This must be accomplished before beginning to build. Failure to adequately address this will result in a partnership that appears to be healthy on the outside but with a weak core. Remember that it’s easy to have a good relationship during the good times. When troubles arise, the solid core serves as an anchor to enable perseverance.  To accomplish this, there are key areas that must be discussed thoroughly before moving on to formalizing the partnership.

Why is this important?

Consider this version of the next chapter in the aforementioned scenario:

Over a series of phone calls, the two CEOs discuss the details of their lunchtime plan for partnering to to provide integrated healthcare. Topics discussed include creating a Memorandum of Understanding; financial arrangements (who pays for what); which services will be provided; and who bills for which services; becoming a health home. Separately, the CEOs meet with their management teams to plan logistics. At that point the leaders, thinking their work was done, withdrew from the planning. The management teams put together the clinical teams for providing the services. The various teams finally meet for a face-to-face planning session, roughly two weeks prior to the scheduled kickoff. The CEOs make a final appearance to give it their blessings.

The teams are thrust into the arranged marriage, virtual strangers. They never had the opportunity to establish a relationship before the partnership was finalized.

Shortly after the two year anniversary, the partnership is dissolved. The two CEOs think back to the dessert agreement with the “happily ever after” partnership they envisioned and, scratching their heads, wonder what happened.

Unfortunately too many partnerships follow the course outlined above. Once the relationship is dissolved, the organizations return to business as usual. However, it is the people who received the integrated services who are hurt as a result; once again left without services.

Some important things to consider for a successfully integrating behavioral health and primary care include the following:

Identifying the Vision and Mission

Locating a partner is an important first step. Before the partnership is formalized, however, it’s essential to carefully clarify the vision and mission to ensure that they are in alignment with the expectations of each of the organizations. Each partner must become very familiar with the other’s mission and vision. These questions will help to drive that discussion:

    • Are the potential partners prepared for taking on a new business venture?
    • Are the stated missions of the organizations in sync?
    • Can the long-term plans of each organization be adjusted to include this partnership?

Over the next few weeks we will examine critical steps to ensure that your partnership avoids the pitfalls that the organizations in the scenario encountered: A partnership that has the solid and flexible foundation that is necessary for a lasting partnership.

Next week we will take a look at the process of determining the level of integration that will best fit with your vision for the partnership.

behavioral health integration · behavioral health primary care integration

For Better or for Worse: Honoring the Partnership in Behavioral Health and Primary Care Integration

“I now pronounce you…Integrated.”

The early days of the integrated healthcare relationship are typically idyllic, filled with smiles and hopes and dreams. Oh, if we could only maintain that blissful state forever…

Unfortunately relationships don’t maintain a static pattern but are interspersed with disruptions on occasion (or frequently). When these disturbances intervene, the blissful state is challenged.

These are the times that try administrators’ souls.

For a partnership to persevere the inevitable challenges, the basic foundation must be solid.  Just as skyscrapers are built with deep foundations that are not only solid but allow flexibility to prevent collapse when severe environmental or other hazardous conditions erupt, the integrated partnership requires a carefully developed, yet flexible foundation. With a firm core, the relationship has the elements in place to withstand challenges that are sure to occur. (Click here for more information on building a successful behavioral health – primary care partnership.)

Sustainability Planning

Sustainability plans are often synonymous with financial sustainability but will occasionally focus on health information technology in the planning as well. The partnership itself, however, is often overlooked in the sustainability plan. This is unfortunate because if the partnership fails, the plan is rendered moot. The actual partnership itself is taken for granted after the initial honeymoon phase. This is a grave mistake for true sustainability.

Consider this scenario:
Due to internal operational and fiscal needs, the behavioral health partner’s executive team has decided to reassign the integrated BH counselor who has been working in the primary care clinic for two years. The counselor will be replaced with another counselor who is more experienced and is credentialed in both mental health and substance use disorders. Seeing this rearrangement as a win-win, the behavioral health partner is shocked and confused when they hear that the primary care partner, in reaction to this news, is considering hiring their own counselor instead of accepting the replacement counselor. There are even rumors that they might pull out of the partnership.

What went wrong?

  1. The behavioral health partner failed to include the primary care partner in the discussion, thus failing to honor the relationship; the primary care partner felt disrespected.
  2. Rather than express concern to the behavioral health partner, the primary care partner took a reactionary approach instead.
  3. Unaware of behavioral health partner’s internal issues, the primary care partner assumed the worst.
  4. The behavioral health partner failed to understand the value of the individual to the team, not just for the service provided. Counselors are not interchangeable. The counselor was viewed as a valued member of the primary care team.
  5. The executive teams of the partners stopped communicating after the partnership was launched, resulting in a weakening of the committment by each partner.

The list could go on.

This partnership, though financially sound, has neglected to nurture the core relationship. As long as things were going smoothly, the partnership appeared to be successful. Unfortunately, a slight disruption to the routine has threatened the weak core of the partnership. In addition to the obvious lack of effective communication taking place in this dysfunctional relationship, there are other factors also present that are all too common in partnerships:

  • Lack of commitment
  • Lack of respect

Commitment and respect underscore the core requirements for longevity.

Commitment

All partners must be committed to ensuring that integration efforts have the necessary tools for success. This includes the committment of time, not just financial and other resources. When the commitment is present, there is no concern over “fair weather friends” syndrome.

  • Are you prepared to make sacrifices necessary for success?
  • When the going gets tough are you still committed?

Respect

Basic respect is crucial. Your partner has many challenges and concerns that are unrelated to your partnership. Respecting that these are important to your partner whether or not you can fully recognize the impact goes a long way toward being a good partner. Taking the time to gain a better understanding is even better.

  • Do you have a thorough understanding of your partner’s business model?
  • Do you understand the challenges that your partner faces specific to the specialty such as regulatory, operational, clinical, etc.?

Why are these things important?

Understanding and honoring the things that are important to your partner organization strengthens the core of your relationship. Remember, the Golden Rule applies to behavioral health and primary care integration partnerships, too.